The latest development update of Ethereum 2.0 Prysmatic Labs for short


Since their first introduction, the Casper FFG (Friendly Finality Gadget) argument against Casper CBC (Correct by Construction) has been widely discussed. The CBC is a method for reasoning on the consent protocol while FFG is a precise proposal for the execution of a consensus protocol based on the Stake Test.

CBC could have a high overload in terms of efficiency and complexity of the protocol, despite its security. However, Vitalik explained how Ethereum 2.0 Serenity customers could benefit from CBC without sacrificing much efficiency. The rule of choosing the CBC fork is a big difference because it is very inefficient over time and requires many validators compared to the FFG model.

Vitalik suggests that users can modify the fork selection rule by letting it run on a subset of validators chosen pseudo-randomly to limit the overload of the fork selection rule while sacrificing a small fault tolerance. In the end, this can give users the robustness of CBC while doing a trade-off that could be useful.


The changes were made to the validator filing contract here to meet the rules of Solidity 0.51 and fully aligned with the Vyper sample code in the development of Ethereum 2.0. In its latest specifications, there is a transition of the status of the beacon chain which presents three main scenarios. They include the processing of blocks, the regular processing of slots without any block received and the processing of epochs.

Even if there is no block for a particular slot, the beacon chain still performs some accounting. But some of the most essential details of the chain change each time a block is received. Various things also happen within a state transition in a particular order during block processing. The implementation of block processing has gained 100% test coverage as a best practice for critical code paths.

The latest operations show that epoch processing is the next part of the state transition that occurs every 64 time intervals in the entire beacon chain. The current changes in the state transition function required the team to refactor most of the basic operations to update itself with the changes. State transitions are now divided into transitions per-epochs and per-slots.


The transitions per-era are responsible for the alterations of the register of validators, the management of the justification of the blocks and the finalization. On the other hand, slot transitions focus on saving temporary records and aggregating signature checks. The balances are adjusted for penalties or prizes while the validators are withdrawn or validated during the period transitions.

Big changes in specifications push the development team to refactor most of their blockchain services to adapt them. The internal clock of the node depends on the processing of the block, ensuring that status transitions do not occur until the blocks are received.

Other updates in the Unified Code category, Pull requests, and Ad problems include the complete simple serialization specification with tree hashing algorithm. The entire specification for Simple Serialize (SSZ) has been completed and merged via a series of PRs for an issue thread. The hashing algorithm of the merged Merkle tree will make access to the state and the lightweight client considerably easier and more efficient with the help of proper serialization.

In the same update it was announced that the Go-BLS Signatures project is ready for use. The project will be used for the verification of the signature and the aggregation on the chain of beacons according to the Serenity specification of Ethereum 2.0.

Furthermore, progress in the pure state transition function has been highlighted with the help of end-to-end testing. In-depth tests will ensure that the internal beacon chain logic runs on all clients to ensure compliance.

Future work. From the 1st quarter of 2019

The team does not specify the exact day when Ethereum 2.0 could be released, but the document states that as of the first quarter of 2019, Prysmatic's plan is to develop and launch a 0 0 Serenity 2.0 testnet from Ethereum.

The team is working tirelessly to offer a broad and strong implementation that has almost no missing component in reality. They also aim to complete the validator rotation after some minor rework and optimization in the specifications.

Most changes to specifications are completely aesthetic or optimized, as Phase 0 of Primary Serenity is set with reasonable changes. A batch synchronization mode for beacon blocks includes a merged PR that allows nodes to request batches in batches rather than one at a time.

Therefore, it will improve efficiency since a single transmitted message can send multiple blocks, reducing the time it takes for a node to synchronize with the current head. Also various checks of the state of the services for the preparation of testnet are planned for the near future.

Current changes to specifications have led the team to reconsider their validation client architecture. The new changes require validation clients to sign the proposal data each time they propose a block and then send the same block to the beacon mode.

Proponents will also request approval for the status root chosen by the beacon node for block proposals. For added security and efficiency, new RPC methods are required to send and receive data structures between the clients involved.

The upcoming Forcella di Constantinople

Currently, the date is not set accurately, but sources suggest that the fork of Constantinople will probably be activated on Wednesday, January 16th, probably around 7:00 UTC. The current average blocking time is 14.48 seconds. 104407 blocks to go (6975593/7080000.

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