The year 2018 witnessed unforgettable historical events, many of them positives, many of which were tragic beyond pain, death and destruction. This is an overview of some of the most important events from January to December of this year:
"US forces out of Syria"
The decision of US President Donald Trump to withdraw US troops from northern Syria was a shock to Washington's allies and conflicting reactions within and outside the United States.
Trump's announcement followed a phone call with Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdogan, who threatened to enter the city of Manbaj in a few days.
It is surprising that Syrian forces have coordinated with the Syrian government, which in turn has sent 300 of its members to the lines of contact with the factions of the "Euphrates Shield" under the supervision of the Turkish army in Grapples and Bab al-Arima on the outskirts of Manbaj Gharbia.
Manbeg has been out of control of the Syrian government since 2012.
After Donald Trump announced the withdrawal from Syria, what are the Kurdish options in the next phase?
"Sudan Rise up "
The protests began in the eastern city of Atbara on December 19 to protest the rise in the price of bread and fuel, and these demonstrations soon became popular rage across the country.
Like other Arab countries that preceded Sudan in protests, they are following in the footsteps of the "Arab spring revolutions" that were launched by Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Syria and elsewhere. The style of the government was very similar to that of the Arab countries in terms of how those protests were suppressed.
The Sudanese also launched several Hashtagat in both Arabic and English, such as the revolt in Sudan and the departure of Bashir and the revolution in victory.
And the interaction of the Arabs in different countries with the Sudanese protests, some of which saw an update did not know the revolutions of the Arab Spring, including the warning that the Sudanese would be dragged "behind the demands for devastation of the country, as happens in Syria and Yemen.
Demonstrations in Sudan: Bashir accuses the largest countries of extortion to root his country
The disappearance of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi, which took place on October 2 at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, sparked a media fury all over the world, blaming many of the close names of the Saudi hereditary prince Mohammed bin Salman. Some did not hide their direct accusation of Mohammed bin Salman after the investigations reached his closest relatives, including the brother of the Crown Prince, Khalid bin Salman.
Saudi Arabia has officially charged 11 people for the killing of Khashoggi, denying the involvement or knowledge of the Crown Prince.
Khashoggi was a Saudi journalist close to the Saudi royal family before moving into his voluntary exile in the United States, criticizing the policies of Prince Mohammed bin Salman.
He continued to write a monthly column on the Washington Post until he joined the Saudi consulate in Istanbul to complete some official documents, but he never left.
Jamal Khashoggi: who is Major General Ahmad Asiri?
Turkey in Afrin
On 21 January 2018, the Turkish army and its pro-Syrian opposition factions advanced to the Kurdish majority region of Afrin, northern Syria, and launched a military operation called Olive Branch to eliminate the units of protection of the Kurdish people who managed Afrin since 2012.
The operation led to the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Kurds from their villages to the camps in the areas of Shahba north of Aleppo, and the Turkish army took control in February of the same year, for the first time in the history of the area where the inhabitants are displaced and moved from other areas of Syria.
Which groups are fighting alongside Turkey in Afrin?
Hunger kills Yemenis
Save the Children estimates the number of Yemeni children who have died of hunger since the start of the civil war in the country under five with about 85,000 children. UN figures indicate that 1.3 million children have been affected by malnutrition caused by the conflict between the Huthi and the Saudi-led coalition in support of the Yemeni government.
War in Yemen: where to go billions of aid?
The United States transferred their embassy to Jerusalem
The United States transferred its embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem in May 2018 in implementation of its decision to recognize Jerusalem as the historic capital of Israel. Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas described the move as a slap in the face, pointing out that Washington is no longer the honest broker capable of handling peace talks with Israel.
In December 2017, US President Donald Trump announced that he would transfer the embassy to Jerusalem to preserve the promised promise during his 2016 campaign.
The decision was accepted by the conservative and evangelical Christians who voted for Trump.
Discover the only country that followed Trump's example and transferred his embassy to Jerusalem
Women drive in Saudi Arabia
On June 24th of this year was a historic day for Saudi women, the celebrations went through the kingdom after the decision to allow women to drive, the right they had been deprived of.
Saudi women have been asking for this right for decades, until the king has issued his decision to grant them a license.
Most of the international newspapers and channels covered the news, which many saw as a "revolution" in the realm and the beginning of the road to further reform.
Raed Badawi: one of the aspects of the crisis between Canada and Saudi Arabia
The government had previously arrested several women who launched campaigns to demand their right to leadership, including the activist Samar Badawi, who called for the abolition of the system of protection of men and the right of women to drive the car .
In 2018, Saudi Arabia, along with some reforms, was characterized by an increase in the number of female inmates on various charges, such as the relationship with foreign entities, the occupation of Iran, driving the car and others.
Who is Samar Bedawi, whose arrest caused a crisis between Saudi Arabia and Canada?
The visit of Bashir to Bashar in Syria
The surprise visit by Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir to Syria sparked mixed media interest and comments: it was the first official visit by an Arab head of state since the mass protest movement broke out and turned into a civil war years ago. Some newspapers described it as a "miserable review", while others saw it as "a recognition of the victory of Syria".
Omar al-Bashir in Syria: the Arab newspapers wonder if the visit is a "miserable review" or "recognition of the victory of Damascus"?
Elections in Iraq
On May 12, 2018, the first parliamentary and presidential elections were held in Iraq after the liberation of the country from the organization of the so-called "Islamic State".
The elections were the fourth since the overthrow of Saddam Hussein in 2003. The results of the vote ended with the election of Adel Abdul Mahdi as prime minister in place of his predecessor Haidar al-Abadi and Barham Saleh as successor of Fuad Masum.
Barham Saleh al-Kurdi, who has not brought arms, is the president of Iraq
The general war in Algeria
Algeria has seen the layoffs of high-profile figures that the country has never seen before. In September of this year, Major General Said Shankarijeh appointed a new ground forces commander to replace the "best tafer".
Brigadier General Hamid Boumayza was appointed commander of the Air Force, replacing General Abdelkader Lounas, while Secretary General of the Defense Ministry, General Mohamed Zanakhri, took over from Grace Hameed.
Major General Lahib Chantov, commander of the first military zone, was dismissed together with the commander of the national gendarmerie, Major General Manad Nuba.
Algeria has presided over President Abdelaziz Bouteflika for 19 years and has been elected for four consecutive sessions. The next presidential elections will be held in April 2019.
In addition to the dispute over the presidential elections, Algeria has faced a series of economic and political challenges, in particular protests in Ouargla, in the south of Algeria, to protest against the deterioration of living conditions.
"Libya between Italy and France"
Libya, since the fall of the regime of the late president Muammar Gaddafi in February 2011, has become a battlefield and destruction, leaving chaos, especially after the creation of militias and armed groups supported by various parties.
And several initiatives to calm and resolve the situation in Libya, the most recent Palermo conference in Italy, which tried to open the door to dialogue between the Libyan National Army led by Marshal Khalifa Hafter and the head of the government of reconciliation , Fayez Sarraj.
Italy, which supports Fayez Al-Sarraj and France, which supports Khalifa Haftar, is competing for their influence in Libya, along with the tensions between the various rival forces of the country.
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