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Newspaper Al – Akhbar



The modern state is the national state and there is no modern state outside the structure of the national state, called "modern" because its foundations and foundations are completely different from all kinds of community organizations that preceded it, from tribes to tribe to religious empires.

At the end of the last century, it seemed that the nation-state had been decimated by globalization, when many thought that the world had become a small village run by the United States, but this model has now diminished because the United States has imposed globalization on all the nations. The devastating wars for this goal, I turned to, when China overcame this.
The truth is that the nation-state is still immune from the challenges it faces, while many countries in the world are still far from the national state because they refuse to take the basic elements that transfer from tribalism and sectarianism to a country / (1) .
This is an attempt to build the foundations on which the national / national state is based, without which there is no possibility of a modern state.

The national community is an open society
For Sarkzia, the first obstacle I have been talking about for a long time2 is the division by European occupiers in the states a century ago, and not allowing these countries to communicate and unite, but cause hatred and hatred between them so as not to unite or agree a position towards the external enemy. These countries try to provoke internal unrest to keep them weak and under control, meaning that the colonizer has deliberately tried to force our society to shut down. Because even the national state is national by name and not by deed, because the fundamental condition for the existence of a homeland is the "sense of belonging of all its members", which has not yet been reached, nor the agreed symbols and accepted by all, nor a conscious and effective contribution to the rebirth of life And each denomination has different purposes, each of which is considered to share a life with a person belonging to their sect or ethnic group, even if it is outside the confines of his homeland, more than those who share the earth with it, which leads to shaking the legitimacy of the state, and therefore its existence, "and the acceptance of the constituent individuals and range of the state of belonging to it, and the tendency towards secession, or autonomy, or federalism "(3).
The openness to the other common citizenship is the first prominent feature in the national community, since the national community is that all those who live on the earth have the right to automatic affiliation, while the tribe and the clan and the community and ethnic groups are closed to prevent the belonging of the other, because of the relationship of blood, or descent O religion, also follow ancient traditions that are incompatible with the development of society over time and take very conservative positions that the make them wrapped in their environment. One of the manifestations of Arab societies is their isolation and rejection of the other involved in geography based on hereditary proportions, blood relationships as in the clan and in the tribe, or confessional / religious affiliation.
The first revolutionary step towards the establishment of the nation-state is to impose membership and the national identity of all residents within the confines of the state without giving any consideration to the proportions or seven or blood relationships. and ethnic and the first manifestations of the transformation from the closed society to the open society On a specific geographical point.
This process began in the 50s in the states of Sercia and North Africa, where national / national political parties emerged as members of the population, regardless of their religious or ethnic identity. The conflict between the parties focused on the objectives politicians and on the course.
From the results of the transformation from closed societies to open societies, from the rebirth of intellectual renaissance through the free interaction between members of society in science and literature, journalism and poetry, literature, theater and art and in the construction of forums and research centers, Beirut became the example of the intellectual capital of Sercia, where the competition of intellectuals and writers follows Iraq, Syria, Palestine and Jordan with local thinkers from Jabra Ibrahim Jabra to Salma Al-Khadra Al-Jayyousi, Bader Shaker Al-Sayab and Al- Bayati, Fadwa Touqan, Mahmoud Darwish and Adonis, Yasin Rifaiya, Amal Jarrah, Laila Baalbaki, Khalil Hawi, Halim Barakat, Naseef Nassar, Kamal El Hajj, Kamal Salibi, Edmon Rabat, Salwa Nassar, Constantine Zureik, Anis and Youssef Sayegh .. and many others, as well as the intellectual leaders who created modern parties that invoked nationalism from Michel Aflaq to Satea Al Hossary, … But as soon as we returned to our communities à closed for ethnic and sectarian reasons following civil wars, this rebirth vanished. From here, we conclude that there is no place for an intellectual renaissance if society does not move from the old traditional state system to the modern nation state, and the more open society is, the more developed and progressing at all levels.

A manifestation of Arab societies is their rejection of the other involved in geography based on hereditary lineage, blood relationships or religious / religious affiliation

Historical evidence confirms that societies progress through interaction rather than closeness, and we only have to compare Sparta with the Other in front of an open Athens that has produced a very advanced culture. The same applies to the friction of the West during the Middle Ages with the Arab East, and the sciences took it from mathematics, medicine and physics, which led to its renaissance and the construction of its state modern. So, not interacting like we do today and rejecting the introduction of new standards is the main reason why we tend to lag behind. Each nation cites what is useful, then develops it to become part of its character. It is amusing to reject the nationalistic saying only because it is a Western product, like many Arab writers, especially the Salafites, they underline, but they do not refuse the car, the plane or the telephone, For us, as if these writers wanted that we remain consumers, not creative, and realize that we will lose our identity if we take the new sayings, as if identity were a static, not dynamic or dynamic movement!
This refusal based on the non-adoption of the principles of the modern state and its principles, is a concession to the arena of life, and the acceptance of the dominion of the West, because the Arab countries live while they breathe this West , and materials consumed by the western majority, and paid for their resources, and even resources are eligible because there is not a nation-state that protects it.
It is necessary to underline that the interaction between individuals, groups and civilizations leads to development, because every interaction forces society to find solutions to new challenges, otherwise it will degenerate into a stagnant quagmire.

From personal units to geographical units
The transition from personal union to geographical affiliation is the most important historical development in the construction of the national system. A personal union is based on blood relationships, religious or ethnic relationships, while belonging to the homeland determines identity and gives a social / political / economic meaning to the existence of society.
The transition from personal affiliation to the rebirth of the modern nation state is not easy, and it takes a long time to crystallize. The feudal system in the West contributed to the emergence of enormous sections which later became the nucleus of nation-states. Divisions were not divided among children. The law of primogeniture in Europe served to give feudalism to the eldest son, The Babylonian and then the Islamic, who distributed the inheritance among the male heirs, leaving the cuttings of limited size.
In addition, the peasants and their families in the West were connected to the land, were part of feudalism, sold and bought, and this involved the attachment of the inhabitants to the land and their sense of belonging, not their feudal lord. With the intertwining of parties with one another through war or marriage, the great feudal lord became the property not only of his clan, but of dozens of other clans who had been incorporated by feudalism , and this was the beginning of the emergence of a national identity.
The triumph of the nation-state model is investing the world in the east and in the west, and the identity we carry and transfer from one country to another determines our geographic identity, ie residence, not descendants, ethnicity or religion. A Frenchman who has the nationality of his country, for example, wanders in his name on the basis of his geographical boundaries, and not on his white race, ethnicity, religion or clan, characteristics that no longer guarantee the identity of the political person or even its existence. ground.
The Arab countries have not adopted this model and still live in the swamps of personal unions and their conflicts among themselves and their rejection of those who live in the same land because they are different religious or ethnic.
The refusal of the other, which does not resemble us, means rejection of the principle of unity of the community based on the internal life of certain geographical boundaries, with consequent loss of society and fragmentation in many sections that struggle with conflicting values, different goals and different ways of life, because they do not belong to the common ground, Religion, race or ethnicity, even if they accept the recognition of the other on their land, to build a "national interest" common to all, because it considers their survival and survival as a coherent society in the face of external challenges.
And further exacerbate the fragmentation, the intervention of Western countries in the prevention of any unity or solidarity or cohesion among the members of society through solidarity with this or that community, and the countless tragedies that have passed and pass through the refusal of # 39; national identity / nationalism, and the involvement of some in the arms of are outside of their national state, because they have a priority for personal belonging.

Features of National Geographic
The modern nation state has arisen for objective reasons in the midst of the development of humanity, and the common identity of all those on a specific land has been emphasized in differentiation with the other who lives outside. of these boundaries. This fact necessarily means that those who fight in the name of ethnicity or tribe are inevitably lost, because confrontation requires them to use the tools available to survive, not to return to the old tools that lead to their early defeat.
The change that took place because of the preference and priority of the relationship with the earth and its protection and defense because its loss means the loss of our existence, is one of the greatest transformations occurred in the history of humanity, where the citizen has sacrificed his life to defend his land. This does not in any way mean abolishing personal union, but rather placing it second. Therefore, the dilemma in some religious currents, such as political Islam, is not religious content, but the status of religion (personal union) above all national / national considerations. Some Islamic currents in the Arab world are joining Turkey or the West or in other countries at the expense of its land and its citizens, as happened recently in Syria. This attitude shows the rejection of the modern mixed state and the request to return to the religious state. Religious parties in Germany, France, England, the United States of America, or any national state, the parties of their first and absolute loyalty to their state and nationality, operate within this framework. Western nations have long fought the Catholic empire to free themselves from the control of the religious state and subject it to the control of the nation-state. All the temples and churches in the West are obliged to follow the laws of their marital status, and they can not enforce the laws of the Church of Rome, because the priority of the nation state. Here lies the great difference between religious currents and parties in the West, and between the Salafi and Muslim currents in the Arab world. The same applies to Turkey and Iran: they are mainly national states, second-class Muslims, and the clerics of both countries are loyal to their national state: any violation of this principle is a national betrayal.

What defines the identity of the modern world order is the Earth. Therefore, loss of land means losing the identity of the individual, as well as the group

Because some of the Arab world think that our struggle with the West is not a struggle between national states that want to dominate and take control of our primary resources, but that the West is fighting us "because it is a Christian and wants the elimination of Islam. "They forget that the two world wars took place among the" Christian "countries of Europe and they have eliminated millions. Modern wars are among the nation states that aim to survive, in addition to control and expansion.
The same applies to the vision of the resistance of the Arab countries. Although the word "resistance" contains the concept of defense of the earth, not of religion or ethnicity. Resistance is a reaction that comes from the kidnapping of an enemy's homeland: the homeland is a home for both religions and ethnic groups, so it was not in the minds of the French to renounce the French resistance during the Second World War. Jan Darek has resisted the English carrying the cross, does it mean that he is fighting because he is Christian, or is he fighting for his country, France? In the end, "resistance" is patriotic regardless of the forms it takes, because it liberates the collective land of all elements: when some citizens focus on the ethnic or religious origins of the resistance, it means that we still live in people. , not national, This is the case of the states of Syracuse today, because they have been divided in a special way by the colonial West to be in the form of confessional and ethnic confederations, so this resistance has a double responsibility. On the one hand, they are forced to defend the land that the army can not protect due to foreign interference in the fate of fragile and weak entities, from the other, must build bridges and reconnect between the States of Syracuse to prevail on Western aggression.
What defines identity in the order of the modern world is the Earth. So, loss of land means loss of the identity of the individual, as the group, if the Palestinian lost his land, lost his national identity, forcing him to adopt the identity of the land he lives within his borders, becoming an American if he moved to the United States or Germany if he resorted to Germany, He can claim to be a Palestinian, but most of him can do, who is a German or an American of Palestinian origin . No tribe, tribe, religion or language can maintain its identity. Only belonging to the land allows him to remain inside a community he represents. Many primitive societies have disappeared in the last two centuries because of their loss of land and every people loses its land.
The people of the Arab world have not yet understood this fact: they live outside the modern system of national states and think that a people can remain without land because they still live in the time of personal union on my part and my tribes. Earth, take the identity of this land, not vice versa. Which means that the Kurds who have settled in northern Syria become Syrians, do not become northern Syria and do not become Mexican in California because most of the population of Mexico! The Mexicans living in California today are Americans fighting for the same privileges as the white man.
While the modern nation-state is dominant today, nation-states see its heritage from its national point of view, so China views Buddhism as part of its heritage, and the secular Italian nation sees the Roman Empire as one own ancient history. Thus, every ancient civilization has its modern national reference, which must be assessed from the point of view of the national state and the land on which it was born, regardless of the tribe or ethnicity that created it.
If we want to apply the principle of national unity to the emergence of Arab civilization, we have discovered that it has emerged and grown in the two Suraqatin: Damascus and Baghdad, what is needed to study the history of the region and the narrative, not starting from the Omayyads, but from the history of this land before the Umayyads and the Abbasids, Syrian expansion to the west of the days of the Umayyads, followed the line of spreading of the Canaanites in North Africa in the same way it happened at the time of the Kingdom of Carthage, which extended to Spain, but passed the entrance of the Umayyads of Andalusia, Because its commander Hannibal crossed the Alps to confront the Roman Empire, occupied parts of the 39, Italy, and could have won the battle if Tiro, the city-mother (city-state) contributed to the support of Carthage with military aid.
Arab civilization, as arose in Damascus and Baghdad, was based on the sciences, knowledge and techniques of these two capitals and did not attract the income of this land from the introduction of this pre-Islamic and pre-Islamic civilization.
The first reason was the division of Saracenia by the colonial West at the end of the First World War, the second reason was that most of the speakers rejected the elements of the modern national state which refers to the heritage of the origin. geographical, the land on which it arose, because this speaker still clings to give priority to religion or ethnicity, not to nationality and to religion as we do not know geographical boundaries, and does not pay attention to nationalities, That My Lord is more important than the foreigner, because the Qur'an was revealed in Arabic, or because Prophet Muhammad belongs to the Quraish tribe.
The Arab and Islamic countries live in terrible isolation, depend on the West in every small and large, and their educated elites, including the religiously committed elite (Salvia and Ekhwaniyah), are eager to bring their children in Western schools and universities. And dreams of returning to the boom of the Middle Ages without making the slightest effort to reach that end. If the reasons for the flourishing of Arab civilization were examined in this period, the conclusion found that their mingling and openness to the heritage of other peoples is what led to their rise, and that any intrusion of any people will lead to its degeneration and degeneration.
Therefore, it seems impossible to progress socially, politically, economically and militarily if we do not take into account the historical framework in which we live today, while the majority of the population of the Arab world want to defend themselves based on medieval affirmations.

1 – Ali al – Din Hilal, «the crisis of the state and of the current Arab sedition» Journal of Renaissance, No. 15, 2018, page 111.
2 – Safia Saadeh, "The war on Syria from the point of view of the thought of its national excellence", Damascus Research and Study Center, October 2018.
3 – Adel Mujahid Al-Shargabi, crisis of the state in the Arab world, Center for studies on Arab unity, Beirut: 2011.
4 – Antoun Saadeh, The Rise of Nations, Beirut: 1994, p.
5 – As for Abu Khalil, "When Damianos saw a train for Lebanese that did not look like him", Al-Akhbar newspaper, December 15, 2018.

* A university professor


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